Give to Cesar what belongs to Cesar!

And Justice Will Be done.

by Cintia Maria Rodrigues Blanco and Jeferson Santiago da Silva

BOTH ARE PHD CANDIDATES AT POLYTECHNIQUE SCHOOL OF MONTREAL. CINTIA MARIA RODRIGUES BLANCO IN UNDERSTANDING THE GOVERNMENT DECISION-MAKING PROCESS APPLIED TO BIG SCIENCE PROJECTS AND JEFERSON SANTIAGO DA SILVA IN COMPUTER ENGINEERING.

BOTH ARE PHD CANDIDATES AT POLYTECHNIQUE SCHOOL OF MONTREAL. CINTIA MARIA RODRIGUES BLANCO IN UNDERSTANDING THE GOVERNMENT DECISION-MAKING PROCESS APPLIED TO BIG SCIENCE PROJECTS AND JEFERSON SANTIAGO DA SILVA IN COMPUTER ENGINEERING.

Science cannot predict what is going to happen. It can just calculate the probability of something happening.
— Cesar Lattes (1924-2005)

The sad look and lucid conversation—sometimes acid—of that thinning hair, sloppy beard and erect back old man recall a history of disappointment. Where that young creative genius of bright and watch—full eyes—whose knew how to innovate, had lost his lushness? According to relatives, friends, professional colleagues, he had suffered an unspeakable injustice. And who would judge or change this judgement? The time? The history? What matters? For whom does it matter? According to the world, rules are rules. After all, what had happened along the 80 years of Cesar's life that had mortified himself?

Figure 1: Cartoon of Cesar Lattes.

Figure 1: Cartoon of Cesar Lattes.

Cesar Lattes, born Cesare Mansueto Giulio Lattes in 1924, was the greatest physicist that Brazil has ever seen. His work in the eld of particle physics is known worldwide. Since very young, Lattes developed the interest in Physics and Mathematics, calling his teacher's attention, even before he started his major at the University of Sao Paulo—Brazil. In college, Lattes started researching experimental methods for detecting cosmic particles. Cesar never started a doctorate degree, and this had no impact on his brilliant scientific work.

His research in particle physics has interested the world at the end of the boiling 1940s. With only 22 years, searching for better research conditions, Lattes went to England and started working at the University of Bristol, led by Cecil Powell. There, Lattes developed a new method for cosmic particles detection that allowed to reduce the exposition time and also to amplify observed results.

 To test his apparatus, Lattes dared more and set up a laboratory at 5,200 meters above the sea level in the Bolivian Andes. And then, still in 1947, his glory...and the beginning of his bitterness... He proved the existence of a subatomic particle - the meson-pi - using his innovative method. Such particle was proposed by Hideki Yukawa [1] in 1935. The Japanese scientist won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1949 for that finding.

Figure 2: Cesar Lattes in the Bolivian Andes. Source: Retrieved from [6].

Figure 2: Cesar Lattes in the Bolivian Andes. Source: Retrieved from [6].

And, in the next year... the Nobel went to... Cecil Frank Powell... The "boss" got the award in 1950 at the expense of Lattes' work! After all, he won "for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method" [7].

But who developed the method, climbed the mountain to test and found the atomic particle was Cesar! Also, he developed the entire needed math for determining the mass of the particle. Besides, he was the responsible for proving that was possible to create meson-pi particles in the laboratory, now at UC Berkeley, California. Even having published two article as the first author in the Nature Journal [2, 3] and another one as co-author in the Physics Review Journal [4]...

The award was given to another...

Why was it denied by the Swedish Academy? They say his Italian origin was the cause. They wouldn't reward a "fascist" in the recent post-war... Others consider that the fact of Cecil be British weighed in the nal decision, since most committee members at that time were British.... No one knows the right reason... Just speculation, nothing more.

 "Every ache and disappointment... every pain and tear in us... is the dying of a world" [10]... And that bright in his eyes has gone... His childlike motivation has ceased... replaced by a highly professional scientist, productive, always brilliant, workaholic, critical... and, at many times acid.

The rules prevailed, and the Nobel Prize was only to the project's head, Cecil. Fair? Many say that the world is not fair. Almost 70 years have passed, and the Brazilian scientific community still claims: Give to Cesar what belongs to Cesar!


References

[1] H. YUKAWA, \On the interaction of elementary particles. i," Proceedings of the Physico-Mathematical Society of Japan. 3rd Series, vol. 17, pp. 48{57, 1935.

[2] C. Lattes, R. Fowler, and R. Cuer, \Range-energy relation for protons and a-particle in the New Ilford 'Nuclear Research' emulsions," Nature, vol. 159, pp. 301{302, 1947.

[3] C. M. G. Lattes, H. Muirhead, G. P. Occhialini, and C. F. Powell, \Processes involving charged mesons," Nature, vol. 159, no. 4047, pp. 694{697, 1947.

[4] J. Burfening, E. Gardner, and C. M. G. Lattes, \Positive mesons produced by the 184-inch berkeley cyclotron," Phys. Rev., vol. 75, pp. 382{387, Feb 1949. [Online]. Available: http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRev.75.382

[5] Universidade Federal do Ceara, \Os Cientistas na Terra da Luz: Cesar Lattes," http://www.seara.ufc.br/cientistas/lattes.htm, accessed: 2016-06-01.

[6] Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, \Breve Histórico de Cesar Lattes,"
http://www.cbpf.br/Sta/Hist Lat.html, accessed: 2016-06-01.

[7] Nobelprize.org, \The Nobel Prize in Physics 1950,"
https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel prizes/physics/laureates/1950, accessed: 2016-06-01.

[8] \CIENTISTAS Brasileiros: Cesar Lattes & Jose Leite Lopes." directed by: José Mariani. Rio de Janeiro: Prefeitura do RJ, 2002. DVD (110 min). Documentary.

[9] C. VIEIRA, \Lattes: Nosso heroi da era nuclear," Fisica na Escola, vol. 6, pp. 44{49, 2005.

[10] K. Smith, \Microcosmos," Heavy Metal, vol. 13, n.4, Sep 1989.